Friday, 29 August 2008



Sydney Winter Day.

It won't do you any good, mind you, if your sins are unforgiven.

Thursday, 28 August 2008

Jean Williams

My Melbourne buddy Jean Williams has joined the Sola Panel.

Check out her first post ever, on parenting, here.

Wednesday, 27 August 2008


You feel a bit poorly on the Thursday so you go to bed for a time. You wake up and realize it's still Thursday, so you get up and about a bit of your business, a bit more slowly than usual so as to be on the safe side. With a cold fogginess you come to understand that it is now Thursday, a week later. Far more than sleep, sickness resembles death, coming at you on soft, downy, cancerous wings of an indeterminate colour, not black nor even dark enough to be grey.

Tuesday, 26 August 2008

Rego sticker happiness

Happiness is when your old rego sticker comes off the windscreen in one easy peel.

Monday, 25 August 2008

Spurgeon and sickness.

Yep, I'm still sick.

So are lots of kids out there; when Fifi dropped the girls at school one class had 7 people in it!

Anyway I spent most of the last four days in bed, or doing survival things, or reading.

I read a biography of Spurgeon.

The man was nuts, in a good way.

I posted about him, here.

Sunday, 24 August 2008

Role models

Does sport produce role models? From the Age:

The role-model argument is an obvious furphy. Nary a week goes by without yet another scandal involving an elite athlete - be it drugs, alcohol or violence. As role models, they certainly are poor choices. Athletes, by definition, are obsessive often to the point of being clinically compulsive in their behaviour. They have a disturbing willingness to seriously risk their bodies, and a desire to best all comers, not work co-operatively, but beat and crush their opponents. A singular obsession that excludes the possibility of a balanced life. And the most scary message we get is neatly summed up by a certain giant footwear company slogan from the Atlanta Games in 1996 - "second is first loser".

But surely everyone wants to be like Shane Warne?

Saturday, 23 August 2008

The brave Covenanters

Marvellous post from Jennie B about the brave Scottish Covenanters. If like me your knowledge of church history in Britain ends in 1603, read on and learn.

ADHD, Ritalin and Michael Phelps

Miranda Devine in the SMH.

Thursday, 21 August 2008


Today I'm sick. If I was a small child I wouldn't send me to school. I'm about to go to bed and sleep the sleep of the comatose. I've been reading Douglas Moo on Romans 12-16 and it has helped me focus on what Paul is saying. But come on Douglas, if Romans 12 is not directly and specifically addressed to the local assembly (as opposed to all the Christians in the city of Rome) then what's the use of it? I mean, if you have the gift of 'presiding', how are you going to preside unless people actual turn up to your meeting to be presided over. Get real.

Random thoughts. I wonder if while I'm sleeping I dream up some brilliant thoughts about these chapters, whether Tony will let me count that as work time? James Watson, dreamed and cracked the mystery of the double-helix structure of a Nobel prize...Hmm...I've got to think !

Meanwhile, I notice that in Romans 1:5 and Romans 16:26 Paul states that God's intention is to bring about the obedience of faith. I figure that theologizing that doesn't produce this is not worth spitting on; unfortunately that is quite a lot, but at least you save on spit.

Wednesday, 20 August 2008

Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury

Thanks to Justin Taylor,who links this from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Long post follows.

Stephen Langton (c.1150–1228), manuscript drawing [crowning Henry III]
Langton, Stephen (c.1150–1228), archbishop of Canterbury, was one of three sons, perhaps the eldest, of Henry Langton, a minor landowner in Langton by Wragby, Lincolnshire. A moated farmhouse to the west of the church could mark his birthplace.
Early years and career in Paris
The first certain date in Langton's life is his appointment as cardinal in 1206, though he is known to have taught theology in Paris in the 1180s. By then he would have completed courses in both the arts and theology, which would have taken fifteen years, from perhaps c.1165 to 1180, and it is likely that he would have been fifteen when his studies there began. One brother, Simon Langton, followed him to Paris. Where the brothers were first educated is unknown, though Lincoln, about 12 miles from Langton, had schools. At first the family must have supported Stephen, but later he received benefices at York and Notre Dame, Paris. Some time between 1191 and 1205 Stephen was in York, where he witnessed two charters of Archbishop Geoffrey as Master Stephen Langton. If it were Geoffrey who gave him his prebend (and it is known that another Paris master, Pierre de Corbeil, was made archdeacon by him), this would have added to his later unpopularity with King John, who never enjoyed good relations with his brother. Much later in 1226 Stephen referred warmly to his former membership of the church of York. His position at Notre Dame, on the other hand, which would have provided him with a house as well as an income, must have depended upon the approval of King Philip Augustus, another negative point for John.

About 1165 there may have been approximately 3000 students in Paris, forming one-tenth of the city's total population. The schools were concentrated on the Île de la Cité, and around, even on, the Petit Pont which joined the Île to the Left Bank. Langton's teachers in arts are not known, but when he moved, c.1170–75, to theology, he came into contact with a number of masters, of whom the most significant was Peter the Chanter. Whether he was formally Peter's pupil is a matter of dispute, but it is agreed that Peter influenced him deeply in his choice of questions to tackle, and in interpretation of scripture. Like the Chanter, Langton attracted able pupils, of whom two, probably six, had distinguished careers. Richard Poor became dean of Salisbury in 1197 and was elected to Chichester, the first of his three bishoprics, in 1215, while Thomas of Marlborough became abbot of Evesham (1229–36), having previously taught law in Exeter and Oxford. Henry of Sandford, archdeacon of Canterbury and bishop of Rochester (1227–35), was certainly a great admirer of Langton and, like Alexander of Stainsby, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1224–38), may well have been another pupil. Andrew Sunenson, archbishop of Lund (1201–24), may have been a fifth, since some of his writings follow Langton's very closely, and Bernard (II), archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1224–37), a sixth, because he had an extensive collection of Langton's works.
Langton wrote most as a teacher of theology, exemplifying the three sides of a master's work distinguished by the Chanter: disputation of theological questions, biblical commentary, and sermons. In each area the sheer scale of manuscript evidence has prevented the close study, and certainly the editing, of more than a little. The difficulties are increased because many works survive in a number of forms: as yet no consensus has emerged about whether these reflect notes (reportationes) made by different students of the same, or separate, verbal presentations: the contribution of Langton's own editing is also unclear. It is possible that some revision may have occurred when he was unable to exercise his archiepiscopal office for much of 1207–13 and 1216–18.

The centre of Langton's work is a series of commentaries on the whole of the New and Old testaments, with the probable exception of the Psalms. They form a far larger contribution than that made by any other contemporary scholar. Some commentaries began as lectures, indeed some only exist as notes made by others which refer to Langton as ‘the master’. Normally he draws on the work of earlier teachers contained in the Glossa ordinaria, and on writers nearer his day, like Andrew of St Victor, and Peter Lombard. One manuscript of a commentary on Paul's epistles portrays the relationship: in the centre of the page is the biblical text, around it Lombard's comments, and circling the whole, Langton's. For some books he comments on all the traditional senses of scripture, for some the literal sense only, or merely the moral. It is quite clear that, although establishing the meaning of the text is inescapable, he lays more stress on drawing out the spiritual meaning. At the start of his commentary upon the lesser prophets, taking a verse from Ecclesiasticus, ‘May the bones of the Twelve Prophets spring up out of their place’ (Ecclesiasticus 49: 12), he explains the dry bones as the letter of scripture, but their marrow and fatness as the spiritual interpretation, which is harder to extract.

This extensive biblical work made Langton aware of difficulties caused by the lack of any accepted method of arranging the Bible's books, and of dividing them into chapters. He produced schemes for both of these which rapidly won approval, and were still basically those used at the end of the twentieth century. There is less agreement about his share in a handbook which soon circulated as an appendix to the Bible, explaining the meaning of Hebrew names in the Bible, usually known from its opening entries as Aaz-apprehendens. Some manuscripts attribute it to him, but in view of the fact that some others date back to the eighth century, Langton's share may be that of editor and popularizer. He also produced a commentary on what was then the main textbook for biblical history, the Historia scholastica of Peter Comestor.

Within some of Langton's commentaries there are sections where he explores a quaestio, and references to quaestiones which exist separately. The quaestiones themselves contain some material also in his commentaries, and some which is quite independent, and which may survive in a number of different versions. Some quaestiones on related topics are grouped into collections, or summae—the Summa de virtutibus et vitiis, for example, deals with the seven deadly sins. Many of the quaestiones generally seem to have arisen out of disputation, which by that time took place at a different time from lectures. Only recently has the first thorough catalogue of these quaestiones been made.

The number of Langton's surviving sermons is very considerable: Schneyer's repertory lists over 600, but Roberts based her study on 122 that survive in several named copies. It is likely that the final figure of genuine sermons will fall somewhere between these two figures. Only a handful of them have yet been edited and their discussion has to be tentative. It is generally accepted that most were preached during his Paris years, although a few can be definitely placed later. Most were aimed at clerical audiences, some at monks, rather fewer at a mixed or mainly lay audience. It is supposed, by analogy with other known preachers, like Bernard of Clairvaux, that to the laity Langton would have spoken in the vernacular, although all surviving sermons are in Latin.
The quality of Langton's thought
Some characteristics are common to all Langton's work: here two will be mentioned, self-confidence and liveliness. The first arose from his thorough training and grasp of earlier literature. He was fluent and clear in speech, and familiar with both Parisian masters and the fathers. He had absorbed the work carried out by Hugh and Andrew of St Victor to establish the meaning of the biblical text, which Peter Lombard, Peter Comestor (Peter Manducator), and Peter the Chanter had all accepted was essential. Among the fathers he had read particularly Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory. This preparation gave Langton courage sometimes to agree with a modern master like Andrew rather than Augustine. Quite frequently he referred to Jewish interpretations, but at present there is no consensus about whether he had any knowledge of Hebrew. Many of his references were derived from Hebraists among his immediate predecessors, like Peter Comestor, Peter the Chanter, and Andrew, rather than Jerome, and although he seems to have talked with Jews, he did not approve of entering into disputation with them, which some of his contemporaries did. The Jews were, for him, like slaves who carried the satchels of Christians—‘Iudei enim capsarii nostri sunt’ (Dahan, 130).

Langton's liveliness, although it can be overlooked, is shown in his frequent use of examples to illustrate the argument. The use of exempla, or short stories, in sermons had a long history by his time, going back to Jesus's use of parables. Langton drew upon the Bible most regularly for such stories, but he also turned to many sides of contemporary life. His comments upon life in the schools, for example, are vivid. He knew that many students, whatever they professed to be doing, spent their time gazing at the walls of the lecture room, but justified the charging of fees to them by appeal to the tradition that Abraham had become rich by teaching astronomy in Egypt. He illustrated the effectiveness of exempla in a comment upon the story in Judges 3 of Samgar's killing 600 Philistines with a ploughshare when Aod only dispatched one with a sharp sword:
See! This makes clear that a preacher should not always use polished, subtle preaching, like Aod's sword, but sometimes a ploughshare, that is rustic exhortation. Very often a popular story [exemplum] is more effective than a polished, subtle phrase. Aod killed one man only with a two-edged sword, Samgar six hundred with a ploughshare; so, whereas the laity are easily converted by rude, unpolished preaching, a sermon to clerks will draw scarcely one of them from his error. (Lacombe and Smalley, 173)
Langton's serious approach to sermons may have developed when he experienced some kind of conversion through listening to the charismatic preaching of Foulques de Neuilly, in the 1190s. Jacques de Vitry says that Langton was one of seven remarkable preachers who were deeply affected by him. It must have been his forceful preaching that led to his being nicknamed Thunder-Tongued (de Lingua-Tonante) in some manuscripts. In Paris, Langton belonged to a circle of masters who were committed to the reform of the church, and one of his stories casts a curious light forward to what was to befall him when he went to England. It occurs in the same commentary on the lesser prophets when he reaches the story of Amasius, the high priest of Bethel, hiding behind King Jeroboam as he received Amos. Langton describes Amasius as representing ‘a bad priest or any bad, greedy prelate … [who] for a whore or a little worldly profit’ was ‘ready to go two leagues or more on a winter's night, but to hear a poor man's confession … will not leave his table, even for a few minutes’ (Smalley, ‘Four senses’, 72–3). Amos is the reformer, fresh from Paris. To him Amasius says:
‘Thou seer’, O popular and learned doctor, who threatens us so terribly with thy piety! ‘Go, flee away into the land of Judah’, leave my bishopric or my parish, return to your studies in Paris, ‘eat bread there and prophesy there’, confine your teaching and preaching in Paris. ‘In Bethel’, that is my bishopric, ‘prophesy no more’, that is preach no more. (ibid.)
Certainly there can be no doubt that Langton, once he moved from the schools to the world, found himself faced with pressures and tensions of such complexity that they nearly tore him apart.
The Canterbury election
Early in 1206 Langton's life as a successful teacher came to an abrupt end: Innocent III called him to Rome, to become cardinal-priest of St Chrysogonus; by the end of that year he had persuaded the monks of Canterbury to elect him archbishop of Canterbury. Just what considerations had moved the pope to either course are not entirely clear, but they may be connected. Both men were of similar age, and had known each other for about twenty years, since Innocent had studied in Paris before 1187. Like Langton, the pope admired Thomas Becket, whose shrine at Canterbury he visited. That experience may have made him aware how the community felt about the dead saint, with whom they had often disagreed while he was alive, and their defence of their rights in the choice of his successors. Certainly the long struggle between Christ Church and two later archbishops, Baldwin and Hubert Walter, over their plan to create a collegiate church, would have been very well known at Rome. It may be more than coincidence, then, that the pope sent for Langton not long after news of Hubert Walter's death on 13 July 1205, and the subsequent dispute, arrived in Rome.

Langton would have been able to observe closely the procession of embassies over the next months as the monks, the suffragan bishops of Canterbury, and the king all tried to make their cases. Ultimately, in December 1206, after the pope had rejected the royal and monastic nominees, and the claim of the suffragans to take part in the election, the monastic delegation elected Stephen Langton. Their choice was influenced by Innocent after the community had shown itself to be divided. To John, Langton was quite unacceptable: he was not someone he knew, had spent too much time in France, and had been chosen after a process that allowed no consideration of royal preferences. It is likely, too, that he wanted a more compliant person than Hubert Walter, with whom his relations had become very strained.

To John's objections Innocent replied by praising Langton's qualities as a ‘Doctor not only in the liberal arts but also in theological learning’ (Cheney and Semple, 86–90). When he added that ‘as a result he was judged worthy to hold a prebend of Paris’ and another at York, he struck notes, as has been observed, that would have jarred. Innocent's stance was based on the provision in canon law that, when an election took place in his presence, there was no formal need for royal approval, and he seems to have thought that John would concede, as he had done in earlier disputed elections. His warning in the same letter, that John would find it dangerous to ‘fight against God and the Church in this cause for which St Thomas, that glorious martyr and archbishop recently shed his blood’, was scarcely emollient. The two parties, king and pope, saw the problem from diametrically opposed points of view, and it was to be nearly six and a half years before they could come to terms.
The unacceptable archbishop
Matters stood still from the election until 17 June 1207 when Innocent consecrated Stephen Langton at Viterbo. Not long afterwards Langton wrote a long open letter to the English people which provides some hints as to why he accepted the position. The first is his feeling of deep pastoral concern for England, not surprising for one whose career had become increasingly devoted to preparing others to be priests. The second is a sense that he had only accepted because ordered to by the pope, de mandato superioris—again something that would spring out of his own teaching. Lastly, when he, like Innocent, claimed that the struggle involved Becket and the liberties he had established, he betrays a feeling of deep personal identification with his predecessor. Later his choice of seal was to reflect this: the reverse shows the martyrdom within an inscription which may be translated ‘May the picture of a death in the external world, be for you a life of love within’. The letter, in short, suggests that Langton accepted what he must have known to be an almost impossible task because he felt deeply committed to trying to put into practice what he had taught.

The letter went on to emphasize Frederick Barbarossa's fate: he had struggled against the church, and then drowned in a stream which even a child could have waded through, because God's justice had caught up with him. Langton also, perhaps more ominously, stated that if a rebel remained in schism the church could justly absolve his men of their fealty, since he had withdrawn his fealty from God. Such words can hardly have weakened John's resolve. When he heard of the consecration, he expelled the monks from Christ Church (11 July) and began the course that led to an interdict being laid on his kingdom on 24 March 1208 and his own excommunication in November 1209.

Meanwhile the king took his revenge on Langton's family, causing his father to flee to St Andrews, where he died. His other brother, Walter, may well have gone overseas about then, since in 1211 he was fighting in the Albigensian crusade. Stephen moved into northern France and spent most time at the Cistercian monastery at Pontigny, where Becket had also passed part of his exile. In 1222 he remembered Pontigny generously, granting it an annual pension of 50 marks from the church at Romney. Sometimes he is recorded elsewhere. In October 1209 he went to Melun where he consecrated Hugh of Wells as bishop of Lincoln, and next year settled a dispute between the bishop and city of Cambrai. A year later, in 1211, he presided at the funeral of William de Briouze at the abbey of St Victor in Paris. The winter of 1212–13 was spent in Rome, and at some time between 1210 and 1213 he undertook a preaching tour against usury in Flanders with his fellow Englishman and master of the Paris schools, Robert de Courson.

Fruitless negotiations for Langton's acceptance in England took place each year from 1208 to 1211. Stephen used his brother Simon as his representative on the first two occasions, and in October 1209 had sufficient hope to cross himself to Dover. But such parleys all foundered on two issues: the king wished to have his own position in elections formally recognized by the pope, while the archbishop and his fellow exiles wanted to bind him to compensate them for their own losses. The trust necessary for settlement was lacking. Twice, in 1208 and 1211, Langton cavilled about the terms of safe conducts provided for him and refused to negotiate in England.

Ultimately, in the autumn of 1212, the political situation forced John to give way. Some of his nobles were plotting against him, the Welsh were causing problems, and so he sent a powerful group to Rome which early in 1213 accepted terms offered in 1211. Langton and other English bishops were probably in Rome to witness this collapse. The king was to promise to obey the pope, to provide safe conducts for the archbishop, the other exiled prelates, and the monks of Christ Church, to hand over the Canterbury estates to Langton, after he had taken an oath of fealty from him, and to compensate the exiles for their losses. Innocent gave John until the beginning of June to agree. This he did on 13 May before Pandulf, the papal nuncio, and Langton entered England on 9 July. On 20 July he absolved the king from his excommunication at Winchester and celebrated mass in his presence. The struggle for Canterbury seemed to be over, but a wider struggle had already begun.
Archbishop in action
The next two years were full of activity, as Langton tried to deal with the problems left by the interdict, and then to mediate between John and his restless barons. On his return Langton was about sixty years old, lacking close knowledge of either king or nobles because he had been out of England for forty years, apart from a short period in York, and a mere visit to Dover. It must have taken time for him to establish himself and to try to win the king's confidence. The task must have been almost impossible if John knew that Simon Langton had been in the pay of Prince Louis. Stephen's role was further complicated by the king's surrender of his kingdoms into the hands of Pandulf, just three weeks before his own return. Holding England and Ireland as fiefs from the pope, in return for an annual tribute of 1000 marks, like his later taking the cross (March 1215), may have protected the king against the discontented, but growing papal intervention in England was now inevitable. That was critically affected by the distance between England and Italy. A fast messenger took at least thirty days to traverse it, so by the time the pope's reaction to news of English events arrived back, at least two months had passed: again and again Innocent's orders did not fit the new situation. He got news, too, from king and papal representatives who might well paint Langton's interventions in a poor light. Innocent's primary desire was for peace, and for the crusade: he had little understanding or sympathy with anyone who wanted to disturb the balance of things. The pope was also concerned with the great council to which he had sent out summonses on 13 April 1213, although it was not to gather until November 1215. Langton, on the other hand, clearly acquired sympathy with some of the barons' aims, as he tried to mediate between them and the king, because he suspected John's good faith. Thus, in the end, he was trusted by neither king nor pope, and suspended from office.

Innocent's instructions to Langton of 15 July 1213 told him to ‘do all that you believe helpful to the salvation and peace of the king and kingdom, not forgetting the honour and advantage of the Apostolic See and the English church …’ (Cheney and Semple, 155). Langton's priorities were rather different, as he became involved in two issues: the settlement of compensation for the exiles and the filling of vacant positions in the church, both being issues which brought him into conflict with king and pope. John obviously wanted to be committed to pay as little as possible; Stephen and the other exiles wanted to bind the king firmly, and had only the threat of refusing to lift the interdict to persuade him to come to terms. The situation clearly puzzled ordinary people, since Langton was forced to devote a large part of his sermon delivered at St Paul's on 25 August 1213 to it. The newly arrived papal legate, Nicolò of Tusculum, was annoyed that the bishops would not compromise, while Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, worked skilfully to reduce John's contribution. When finally John accepted a solution, on 17 June 1214, it satisfied no one, and entirely ignored the losses of churchmen who had stayed in England.

The task of filling vacant sees and abbeys was equally contentious. At first John attempted to proceed as though things could continue exactly as before, summoning groups of canons or monks to conduct elections in the royal chapel—a process to which Langton and the bishops objected. They hoped for a freer form of election, although they must have realized that John was unlikely to agree. The pope had put elections firmly under Cardinal Nicolò on 31 October 1213, urging him to ensure that those elected ‘on your recommendation’ should be ‘suitable clerks who should be men not only distinguished by their life and learning, but also loyal to the king, useful to the state, and capable of giving counsel and help—the king's assent having been requested’ (Cheney and Semple, 166). When John left for Poitou in February 1214 he arranged that elections were to be supervised by a committee of five: two great lay curialists, William Brewer and William (I) de Cantilupe, with the abbots of Beaulieu, Selby, and St Mary's, York. Langton was outmanoeuvred; the result was that most new bishops were king's men, and Langton had no chance to see whether reformers might be treated as he had thought they would be when he was a teacher.
Langton and Magna Carta
Much the most difficult part of Langton's job was to try to work for ‘the peace of the king and the kingdom’, as Innocent put it, since John was planning to take a great expedition to Poitou in 1214 against the king of France, a repeat of the project of 1212–13 which had been prevented by baronial opposition. Very soon after the reconciliation with the king Langton intervened to persuade him not to punish those barons who had refused service, and from then on he was almost continually involved in negotiations. Nowadays the picturesque stories told by Roger of Wendover, of Langton's making John promise at the time of his absolution to restore the good laws of Edward the Confessor and producing a charter of Henry I at St Paul's on 25 August to the assembled barons, are discounted. There is, however, general agreement that without Langton the course of events would have been very different.

Langton's was probably the mind responsible for the attempt to set down in writing what the barons wanted, and to frame it in a way which would bind the king. His concern that a king should act according to law and after proper judgment had been themes of his teaching. At first he seems to have hoped that persuading the king to swear to repeat his coronation oath, or something like it, at the time of his absolution would be enough, but by November 1213 he seems to have realized that more was necessary. When the political balance tipped against the king following the battle of Bouvines (27 July 1214) the problems became ever more difficult. Langton lost the pope's trust. Innocent came to connect the growth of discontent in England with the archbishop's arrival, and was ready to aid the king by instructing the archbishop to denounce conspirators against him. The role given to Langton, and to other bishops, in the articles of the barons to clear up various still unsettled matters reflects the barons' confidence. The first clause in Magna Carta granting freedom to the English church, including freedom of elections, may be one achievement of the archbishop, though he and the bishops may well have been troubled by the security clause that denied royal rights which they supported.

Both the articles and Magna Carta were forced out of John by the short civil war of May 1215, but the peace they symbolized quickly broke down, despite Langton's continuous efforts to prevent this. He and the bishops, for example, tried to bring the parties together at Oxford on 16 August and at Staines on the 28th. Soon afterwards, when Innocent's letter of 7 July, which had been written in ignorance both of the charter and of renewed hostilities, arrived, it excommunicated all ‘disturbers of the king and kingdom’ (Cheney and Semple, 208), and laid their lands under interdict, ordering the archbishop and his suffragans to publish these sentences, or be suspended. By that time Langton had completely lost royal favour when he refused to surrender Rochester Castle (a cause of tension ever since the reconciliation of July 1213), almost certainly because by then he did not trust the king. In some senses his refusal to excommunicate the rebels, presumably on the ground that the pope lacked full knowledge of the facts, brought to an end an intolerable situation. The bishop of Winchester, the first addressee of the letter, suspended him, about the middle of September as he was leaving for Rome to attend the council. If Langton's career had ended here, his archiepiscopate might have seemed a disaster.
Last years
Langton made his way south to Rome, where on 4 November 1215 Innocent confirmed his suspension. A few days later the great council opened at the Lateran, at which, perhaps unsurprisingly, Langton seems to have taken little part. Indeed, almost nothing is known about his movements until he returned to England in May 1218, having been permitted to do so by Honorius III. By then he found a very different political situation from that of 1215. The throne was occupied by a boy, but power was exercised on the young Henry III's behalf by a triumvirate: William (I) Marshal, the regent, Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, and Pandulf, since 1218 papal legate. In 1219 Langton took charge of the investigation into the miracles of Hugh of Lincoln, and next year presided at two great celebrations: Henry's second coronation at Westminster (17 May 1220), and two months later the translation of Becket's relics to a new shrine at Canterbury. There he emphasized Becket's essential Englishness, a nice note for a prelate who was so unused to England, and whose brother Simon was still not allowed back into the country because of his support for Prince Louis's attempt to seize the throne. That autumn he travelled to Rome to ask for the recall of Pandulf, taking with him a Becket relic as a gift for the pope. He was back by July 1221 with the order for Pandulf's return, and from then until his death he played a significant role in public affairs.

Power was still not in Henry's control, but exercised by the justiciar, Hubert de Burgh, and des Roches, along with the archbishop, who took over something of the moderating role that the Marshal had filled. Langton was involved in many critical episodes, as the justiciar and des Roches jockeyed for influence, and the body of loyal royal administrators tried to maintain peace and order. One means, the reissuing of the great charter of 1215, certainly owed something to Langton's belief in it as powerful reassurance of royal good intentions. In January 1223 he persuaded the king to confirm it verbally, and two years later was behind its reissue in what was to be its definitive form. The gesture did not placate all those being forced to disgorge castles and offices that they had long controlled, and next year occurred the one serious breakdown of internal peace since the end of the French invasion. William de Bréauté then held Bedford, on his brother's behalf, against the justiciar for eight weeks from June to August 1224. Langton was at the siege and its bloody end when the garrison was hanged. There he was acting out his earlier view that removing custody of a castle from a noble was proper if a judgment of the royal court preceded action. To Honorius the archbishop's conduct seemed extraordinary, because he believed that troops should have been fighting against the king's enemies in Poitou, but he, like Innocent earlier, suffered from having no real knowledge of what was happening in England.

Closer to his concern for reform, Langton made time to hold a provincial council for his province at Oxford in 1222. The significance of its sixty canons is reflected in their survival in sixty manuscripts. Nine of its provisions cite those of the Fourth Lateran Council, while another sixteen reflect it. Others repeat statutes issued by a synod for the diocese of Canterbury which Langton had managed to hold in 1213–14. Very quickly other bishops included the Oxford canons in their own diocesan legislation, and so Langton's work endured as the basis of the church's law. As examples of provisions affected by the Fourth Lateran Council may be cited prohibitions against clergy taking part in judgments involving the loss of blood, or celebrating mass more than twice a day save at Christmas or Easter, and attempts to insist that every vicar should receive an income of at least 5 marks a year, and that no person should occupy more than one benefice involving cure of souls (clauses 13, 11, 21, 44). Altogether a wide range of issues involving both regular and secular clergy were covered, so that the life of the later medieval church was deeply influenced by Langton's work.

In 1227, when he was in his seventies, perhaps nearly eighty, Langton retired from court, but it is striking how king and justiciar continued to maintain contact with him. On 7 July 1228 Langton took part in the celebration of the feast of the Translation of Becket in Canterbury, having seen Henry and Hubert the day before when they came to ratify the terms of a truce with France. By then he was very weak and was taken by litter to his manor at Slindon, Sussex, where he died, probably on 9 July (the sources disagree), to be buried, a few days later, at Canterbury, where his monument, as a result of a rebuilding in the 1430s, now lies protruding through the east wall of St Michael's Chapel, at the south-west end of the nave.
Changing estimates of Langton
Understanding of Langton's life has changed considerably since the late nineteenth century, when interest centred primarily on the political side of his archiepiscopate, as told in chronicle sources, and particularly on his part in the negotiations that led to Magna Carta. Now a better appreciation of the complex politics of John's reign lends a different aspect to Langton's contribution, and his achievement as one of the most important theologians of the turn of the twelfth century has emerged. The change can be seen beginning in F. M. Powicke's Ford lectures of 1928 (which still set the main chronology). They were much influenced by the work of one of his pupils, Beryl Smalley, then beginning to hew out from the manuscripts an entirely new Langton. She has been followed in this task by many, but very few of his works are yet edited, or their chronology established.

Undoubtedly Stephen Langton was one of the great churchmen of the middle ages, moving at the heart of public affairs for much of his archiepiscopate. As ecclesiastical statesman he helped to make the tensions of John's reign less bloody than they might have been, to create the climate in which Magna Carta could be produced, and to see that later it was brought within the regular means of maintaining trust between king and people. As primate and diocesan he left behind relatively few acta compared with Baldwin or Hubert Walter, but he provided the church with a standard for reform in his legislation. At Canterbury itself he finished the great archiepiscopal hall begun by Hubert Walter. On the world of learning his mark was as great as any of his predecessors, Anselm excepted, and he enriched the resources of prayer with one great sequence, Veni, sancte spiritus (‘Come, Holy Ghost’). A great scholar, an indefatigable negotiator, a wise elder statesman, he deserves to be remembered, even though he might have judged his own achievements severely against the standards he had taught in the schools.

Christopher Holdsworth
Sources F. M. Powicke, Stephen Langton (1928) · B. Smalley, The study of the Bible in the middle ages (1952) · J. W. Baldwin, Masters, princes and merchants: the social views of Peter the Chanter and his circle, 2 vols. (1970) · P. B. Roberts, Stephanus de Lingua-Tonante: studies in the sermons of Stephen Langton, Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies: Texts and Studies, 16 (1968) · J. C. Holt, Magna Carta (1965) · C. R. Cheney, Innocent III and England, Päpste und Papsttum, 9 (1976) · N. Vincent, Peter des Roches: an alien in English politics, 1205–38, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th ser., 31 (1996) · D. A. Carpenter, The minority of Henry III (1990) · K. Major, ed., Acta Stephani Langton, CYS, 50 (1950) · G. Lacombe and B. Smalley, ‘Studies on the commentaries of Cardinal Stephen Langton’, Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge, 5 (1930), 5–266 · L. Antl, ‘An introduction to the Questiones theologicae of Stephen Langton’, Franciscan Studies, new ser., 13 (1952), 151–75 · N. Vincent, ‘Master Simon Langton, King John and the court of France’, Speculum [forthcoming] · Selected letters of Pope Innocent III concerning England, 1198–1216, ed. C. R. Cheney and W. H. Semple (1953) · F. A. Cazel, ‘The last years of Stephen Langton’, EngHR, 79 (1964), 673–97 · B. Smalley, ‘Stephen Langton and the four senses of scripture’, Speculum, 6 (1931), 60–76 · C. R. Cheney, Medieval texts and studies (1973), 111–37, 138–57, 185–202 · G. Dahan, ‘Exégèse et polémique dans les commentaires de la “Génèse” d'Étienne Langton’, Les juifs au regard d'histoire: mélanges en l’honneur de Bernard Blumenkrantz, ed. G. Dahan (Paris, 1985), 129–48 · A. d'Esneval, ‘Le perfectionnement d'un instrument de travail au début de XIIe siècle: les trois glossaires bibliques d'Étienne Langton’, Culture et travail dans l'Occident médieval, ed. G. Hasenohr and J. Longère (1981), 163–75 · A. Saltman, ed., Stephen Langton: commentary on the Book of Chronicles (1978) · P. B. Roberts, ‘Archbishop Stephen Langton and his preaching on Thomas Becket’, De ore Domini: preacher and word in the middle ages, ed. T. L. Amos, E. Green, and B. M. Kienzle (1989), 75–92 · I. W. Rowlands, ‘King John, Stephen Langton and Rochester Castle, 1213–15’, Studies in medieval history presented to R. Allen Brown, ed. C. Harper-Bill, C. J. Holdsworth, and J. L. Nelson (1989), 267–80 · F. Stegmüller, ed., Repertorium biblicum medii aevi, 11 vols. (Madrid, 1950–1980) · J. B. Schneyer, Repertorium der lateinischen Sermones des Mittelalters: für die Zeit von 1150–1350, 5 (Münster, 1974), 466–507 · R. Quinto, ‘Doctor nominatissimus’: Stefano Langton (†1228) e la tradizione delle sue opere (Münster, 1994) · S. Ebbesen, ‘The semantics of the Trinity according to Stephen Langton and Andrew Sunesen’, Gilbert de Poitiers et ses contemporains, ed. J. Jolivet (1987), 401–35 · P. Collinson and others, eds., A history of Canterbury Cathedral, 598–1982 (1995), 455
Archives Bodl. Oxf., commentary on Isaiah · LPL, commentaries on Pentateuch and Joshua
Likenesses manuscript drawing, CCC Cam., MS 16, fol. 56r [see illus.] · obverse seal, repro. in F. Barlow, Thomas Becket (1986) · seal, repro. in Powicke, Stephen Langton, frontispiece
© Oxford University Press 2004–8
All rights reserved: see legal notice

Christopher Holdsworth, ‘Langton, Stephen (c.1150–1228)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [, accessed 20 Aug 2008]

Stephen Langton (c.1150–1228): doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16044

Keller on Hell

Michael K, a friend and a reader of this blog, sent me a link to an article by Tim Keller on hell and why it is such an important part of the Christian faith:

It is important because Jesus taught about it more than all other Biblical authors put together. Jesus speaks of "eternal fire and punishment" as the final abode of the angels and human beings who have rejected God (Matthew 25:41,46) He says that those who give into sin will be in danger of the "fire of hell" (Matthew 5:22; 18:8-9.) The word Jesus uses for 'hell' is Gehenna, a valley in which piles of garbage were daily burned as well as the corpses of those without families who could bury them. In Mark 9:43 Jesus speaks of a person going to "hell [gehenna], where 'their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.' " Jesus is referring to the maggots that live in the corpses on the garbage heap. When all the flesh is consumed, the maggots die. Jesus is saying, however, that the spiritual decomposition of hell never ends, and that is why 'their worm does not die.'

If Jesus, the Lord of Love and Author of Grace spoke about hell more often, and in a more vivid, blood-curdling manner than anyone else, it must be a crucial truth.

You can find the whole article here.

Tim Keller is a reasonable, gracious and thoughtful man, which means that someone like me (who is none of those three) will inevitably disagree with some bits of what he says, while loving other bits. If there is a risk in Tim's approach, it's that he is too attentive to the sociological vagaries of the people that he is trying to address. But Tim Keller's judgement is that, looking at the people he is ministering to in New York, the time is overdue for better and clearer and more pungent preaching about hell.

If he had come to this conclusion simply through surveying his audience, then there would be difficulties; for the time might come when someone in such a situation might decide to tone down speaking of hell in all its terror for the fear of driving your audience deeper into a pit of depression and low self-esteem.

But Keller's basic point—make sure you read the article—is that we teach about hell because Jesus taught about hell. Tim's conclusion:

We must come to grips with the fact that Jesus said more about hell than Daniel, Isaiah, Paul, John, Peter put together. Before we dismiss this, we have to realize we are saying to Jesus, the pre-eminent teacher of love and grace in history, "I am less barbaric than you, Jesus--I am more compassionate and wiser than you." Surely that should give us pause! Indeed, upon reflection, it is because of the doctrine of judgment and hell that Jesus' proclamations of grace and love are so astounding.

Preach hell, and you end up preaching grace. Lose hell, and you lose grace as well.

Tuesday, 19 August 2008

'Stillborn' baby comes back to life in hospital fridge

Notice the tags in this ABC report.




(Tag writer thinking: Never mind the baby, fellow journalists, this is just too weird.)

Your opinion please

If your child says they are well enough to go to school, and they seem well, but they have a cough and a sniffly nose, should you send them to school? And if your answer is yes, what about the other kids at school who haven't got a cold?

I had a bit of a cough and a sniffle and went in to work yesterday. Karen is on holidays, so I had the office to myself. No risk of contagion there. And it wasn't a cold that was fatal to my ability to work either, and I'm supposed to be at the office Mondays and
Thursdays unless there's a good reason not to be.

But in a classroom you are surrounded by other kids. Just quietly, I think some of them may have colds too, though I don't know that for sure.

This cold, unless I'm much mistaken, is intense for a couple of days and then fades away, at least for kids.

What to do, what to do?

I've got to think!

Got a letter in the SMH

Here. Here's the unedited original:

Dear editor,

Andrew Dalton complains (SMH Letters Aug 18) that images of sexual arousal are considered confronting, suggesting that this is because people think the act itself may be pornographic. But many things are perfectly natural, and we still think they should be kept private. Things like public defecation and urination, nose picking, groin scratching and vomiting come to mind. People may well have no problem with such behaviour, but they recognize it doesn't belong everywhere.

Sex is given by God for the strengthening of relationship. However ubiquitous displays of overt sexuality in public advertising, the internet, and in reading material encourage people to look to somewhere other than their spouse for sexual satisfaction. This is not good, and people are right to protest against it.

Yours etc.,

The letter it's responding to is here.

Monday, 18 August 2008

So I was reading The Hobbit

So I was reading The Hobbit to my 3 sick children this evening, lying in bed. We got interrupted by something or other, and I came back to start reading again, but they had all decided to leave to watch TV or something.

I'm still trying to work out the significance of this.


If our little Lily Violet was an old lady, some might call her garrulous.

As it is, she's 5 years old, and 'chatty' is the word that we will use for the moment.

Sunday, 17 August 2008

Ruby and I

Ruby (middlest daughter, 7) and I went off this afternoon to see Tatiana Kolesova play the piano in Hunter's Hill. Kolesova was the winner of the People's Choice award at the 2008 Sydney International Piano Competition. We had a lovely time. Ruby lasted until interval, and then we decided to go for a little walk around Hunter's Hill. It was fun to hear Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite arranged for piano by Mikhail Pletnev. Ruby had even heard it somewhere before. It is the most confected piece of confection the other side of Dancing Queen, and a good warm-up for the serious music Kolesova was going to play in the second half.

But now the whole family seems to be coming down with flu.

Saturday, 16 August 2008

Mark Driscoll on harsh language

John Piper's Desiring God blog has an advert for a conference featuring Mark Driscoll talking for about 5 minutes on the use of harsh language. Definitely have a look at it, it's pretty good. The main thing he says is that we should speak the way God does. And God uses strong language, though he does so infrequently. Then in the later part of the clip he adds that the main target of such sneering ridicule, satire, scoffing and, let's face it, abuse, is religious false teachers.

Couple of thoughts. One is that some of those who acknowledge this last point

arguing, for example, that Jesus reserves his harshest language about hell for religious hypocrites, and even using this as a reason to urge that we tone down language about hell in other contexts

will nonetheless become extremely squeamish when people actually put this principle into practice. So when such mockery is targetted at actual false teachers such as NT Wright or the current Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, the reaction is poor.

Now it may be that they disagree that these people are false teachers, so the mockery stings with greater effect than if they agreed with my view, which is that these individuals are not faithful teachers of the gospel.

The other thought is that for those who are so tentative that they would not dismiss Rowan Williams or NT Wright as false teachers out of hand, is there any false teacher that they would subject to mockery in the way that God does, or of whom they would say (as Paul does of the teaching of Hymenaeus and Philetus in 2 Tim 2) "their talk will spread like gangrene."

That said, I acknowledge the danger Mark Driscoll raises of overdoing it and recognize the tendency in myself. Putting a curb on your tongue is not easy. I figure those who have this tendency should pray for God's wisdom to judge the situation rightly, apologize when they make the inevitable mistakes, and keep going.

I am a fat balding family man.

I am fat.

I am balding.

I have a family.

I am a man.

I am a!

These words thumped through my mind at the rate of a syllable each half second or so, for about 90 minutes this morning.

But I finished the run. I only fell over four times. There is not much in the way of external blood and abrasions, almost no bruising and a complete absence of contusions and lacerations, and the wounds are nicely distributed across various limbs and joints.

Friday, 15 August 2008

Thursday, 14 August 2008

Barack Obama, abortion, and babies born alive

An upsetting report on how Obama's stance on abortion goes well beyond passive acceptance and into something far worse.

(Thanks to Justin Taylor)

Jesus blood never failed me yet

this one thing I know, for he loves me so.

Jesus blood never failed me yet,
never failed me yet,
never failed me yet,
this one thing I know,
for he loves me so.

2 versions, about 5 minutes each. Listen to the second if you have time.

Do politicians need chauffeurs?

It's not going to help their humility.

A freebie: Jonah in the ESV

Over on the Sola Panel, I've blogged about some free notes you can get on the book of Jonah, an extract from the ESV Study Bible. I like that Mark Futato, author of the notes, agrees with me that Jonah is a laff-a-minute prophet, even if not intentionally. In that way he's not unlike Rowan Williams, the current Archbishop of Canterbury, except that he doesn't go on for as long and he actually stands for something.

The study notes are really good. Head over to the Sola Panel, read my comments and do yourself a (free) favour.

Wednesday, 13 August 2008

Speaking of not playing well with others


These brokes take joke too far.

"Does not play well with others"

What? What are you looking at me like that for? You say that as if it's a problem.

The hardest thing

The hardest thing about reading the New Testament in Greek is not the understanding of it. It's when you understand it and don't like what it says.

"Love one another with brotherly love, and outwork each other in showing honour".

-Romans 12:10.

Thanks, I understand what you're saying, but I'd rather not!

Greek New Testament

Gaa! I can't find it! And there are two at the office.

How am I going to make sense of my commentaries!

I am going to have to get it off the laptop. I am going to look really stupid walking around looking at my laptop. But I have to, because I have a run this Saturday and I can't afford not to train.

And what if I run out of batteries!

I will have to walk in a circle, avoiding the extension cord that I rig up so I can walk with the laptop.

Nicole Starling joins the sola panel

Nicole's first post is about the way we look.

I came home and was thinking through what to do with these verses. For example, should I be more ‘poorly dressed’? Should I be less comfortably housed? Should I be bolder in evangelism so that I am ‘reviled’ more?

Later that day, coincidentally, I found myself reading Proverbs 31 and was struck by the contrast between the apostles’ lifestyle and the lifestyle of the woman described there. In Proverbs 31, the woman who fears the LORD has an extensive household, her husband is respected at the city gate, and her whole household are “clothed in scarlet”.

Nicole's question is whether there is a fight between these verses and these verses.

If you have an opinion, feel free to drop by and offer it.

Spend the money now, old-timers

Sure, the kids will appreciate the inheritance, but they will appreciate even more the idea that you are enjoying what God has given you and, if you feel so moved, being generous with it now. Take your children and grandchildren out to Saturday lunch. Give the money to your church, or to Anglicare or to CMS or AFES. Die broke but happy! For "Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they?"

Not to mention.

So spend it now, thank God, and enjoy it!

FuelWatch is going down

Unless the government pulls something out of a hat. "Anti gambling senator" (I like that title) is set to use his balance of power vote to bring it down.

The idea seemed ill-conceived, wasteful and counter-productive from the beginning. Nick Xenophon has saved us a bit of grief.

Tuesday, 12 August 2008

Facebook blog networks

For those of you on face book who've signed up with my blog network, thanks! It's been nice seeing your smiling faces and working out some of the friends out there who are reading the blog. It can be a pretty solipsistic experience, in fact, I really only started the blog for my own convenience and started kicking things along after some friendly words from Justin Moffat and Michael Jensen, but it's nice to know there are a few of you out there.

If you haven't joined my blog network on facebook, click the link and go for it. It's a painless experience, ASIO and the CIA already know about you anyway, so why not sign up and let me know who you are as well. Chances are my file on you is slim. ;-)

MOLDI Dinners

Ben Pfahlert's post today on the Sola Panel brought back some happy memories:

MOLDI dinners: In the late 1990s, the Sydney University Christian group realized that it was difficult to get ‘not-yet believers’ to come to outreach events. So they decided to go to them. They organized dinners in King Street, Newtown, which were designed for the express purpose of discussing the meaning of life. Dinner and discussion took place in a neutral territory: a restaurant. A campus in Melbourne adopted this idea, and gave them the name ‘MOLDI dinners’. M.O.L.D.I stands for ‘meaning of life discussed intelligently’. In 2007, this campus ran nine dinners which were attended by 45 ‘not-yet believing’ Uni students.

I never went to one of these but I remember sitting around with Andrew Katay, staffworker with the Sydney Uni Christian group at the time, talking about these things, and what a great relaxed opportunity they were for talking about the gospel and all sorts of things. He mentioned one particular faculty member, a Christian who had realized he was somewhat awkward in matters of conversation, keen as he was to talk about things Christian. But he hadn't left it at that. He offered to sponsor a number of these dinners, ie pay for poor students to go to restaurants in Newtown, so that they could keep on happening. It was his way of both realizing his limitations and capitalizing on his strengths, so that people might hear about salvation in Jesus.

What a brilliant example of teamwork! It put me in mind of Philippians 1:3-5

3 I thank my God in all my remembrance of you, 4 always in every prayer of mine for you all making my prayer with joy, 5 because of your partnership in the gospel from the first day until now.

where at least part of the partnership is that these guys gave money so that gospel work could continue.

The Japanese had currency printed for Australia

According to this letter in today's Age:

Making money

RE DANIEL Flitton's article ("Redrawing battle lines", Insight, 2/8): The occupation currency printed by the Japanese was not a myth. Until recently I had two notes in my collection and an acquaintance has a number, including some printed for the islands between Japan and Australia.

As regards the "Brisbane line", I am certain that a re-reading of some World War II histories will prove that neither was this a myth, that General Macarthur had it in his strategy of how the war could be won.

Ann Brown, Mount Martha

Cycling in Sydney

Time to fix it!

Georgia under attack by Russia

Report here.

At stake: Western Europe's oil and gas supply.

So far 2000 people have died and 40 000 have been made homeless (see the first report).

The Age has a helpful opinion piece by Anna Applebaum.

Monday, 11 August 2008

Children's stories and the gospel

Justin Taylor has linked to Trevor Cairney's post on Christian writing for Children, which is good news because what Trevor said deserves a wider readership.

Here's a quote from Trevor's post that I found fascinating:

The starting point for my seminar was the central proposition that the gospel of Christ is the central narrative to which virtually all other narratives have some relationship – certainly in the Western cultural tradition and literature. The central focus of the Bible is Salvation History; with its central narrative tracing both the history of Judaism and Christianity and God’s redemptive plan for his people. In the beginning God created…and it was good. But sin entered the world, man rebelled against him and so God placed a curse upon his creation that one day would end in judgement. But God always had a plan for such rebellion; a plan of redemption motivated by love. An amazing gift of grace; his own son sent to die that we might be restored to a relationship with him.

I have no idea at all how you work out that "the gospel of Christ is the central narrative to which virtually all other narratives have some relationship". I note that Trevor does qualify the statement somewhat, but now that he's put the thought into my head I am going to start reading fiction books with this question in mind. Wish I'd been at the seminar so I could have asked some follow-ups. I like the summary of the gospel that Trevor has given too, though I might have added something about the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. That, I suppose, is the ultimate happy ending, though not for his unforgiven enemies.

I have three girls under ten and I have often thought I would like to write stories for them. Trevor's post is a good encouragement to this and it would be terrific if a few people read it and were spurred on to making their own efforts.

Actually I did once tell my daughter a story about a cat that didn't keep his word, got lost and ended far from home without its parents. It was all rather unpleasant really now that I think of it. Maybe that's why I stopped trying. Right now our youngest loves The Little Red Hen because she can read the words for herself. Hmm. I reckon this blog entry is one paragraph too long, starting to ramble now, and the dreaded ellipsis seems almost inevitable...

Oh, I know what I wanted to ask. Anybody read any good kid's books lately?

Sunday, 10 August 2008

Broughton Knox writes to his parents

DBK writes:

I would wish never to be addressed as "Dr" on the strength of a DPhil, as these junior doctorates can become a snare to seduce young scholars, especially, from the path of sound learning.

-DBK to parents 9.2.54, Knox Family Papers. Quoted in Cameron p. 124

Peter Jensen preaches

We had a wonderful sermon at church this morning, from Peter Jensen, on the subject Why did Jesus have to die?

What hit me most powerfully, however, were Peter's first words in response to the question "How did you become a Christian?"

Peter responded immediately, and I quote, "The thing that appealed to me first was that God judges."

An extraordinary statement! Peter became a Christian as a teenager at the 1959 Billy Graham crusade. I may come back with a bit more on what he actually said in his sermon at some stage, but I sat contemplating those particular words for quite a time. There is a school of thought that says we need to preach judgement less rather than more, especially when dealing with teenagers who may be sensitive and emotionally vulnerable. Whatever we may think of this, Peter's experience was that the understanding of God's terrible judgement was quite literally the key to his teenage conversion to Christ.

Bionic eye

Invented in Australia, and reported here.

Saturday, 9 August 2008

Christian writing for children

Trevor Cairney posts on it here.

From the Faithful Writer conference.

Heroin is not addictive

Not very addictive anyway, let's not go overboard with bold claims. We were taught this in undergrad Psychology decades ago. But the myth of quick and dreadful addiction persists in popular culture. Theodore Dalrymple, author of Romancing Opiates: Pharmacological Lies and the Addiction Bureaucracy, explains that we ought to look further for reasons why people continue to use heroin:

WORLD: What's the key evidence that heroin addiction is a spiritual or moral condition?

DALRYMPLE: There is lots of evidence. First, there are historical examples of thousands and indeed millions of opiate addicts giving up their addiction because of motivation to do so. Mao Tse Tung took a very dim view of opium addicts and threatened in the end to shoot them. When Mao threatened to shoot you, you took it seriously. Millions of people gave it up. It would not have made sense for Mao to say to people with rheumatoid arthritis, "I will shoot you if your joints don't become normal." It did make sense, even if it was wrong, to threaten to shoot addicts. There is therefore a conceptual difference between the two conditions.

You need to go to the post on Justin Taylor's website to get to the article. I left a comment. Hopefully the evil technology beasties will leave it alone this time! ;-)

Friday, 8 August 2008

Labor fears Costello

So says Hartcher.

The man was the brains behind a strong and growing economy, and is a good debater. So like or loathe, Labor has cause for concern if PC stays.

Near enough is good enough

Most of the time anyway.

There are undoubtedly exceptions, but that pretty much proves the point.

Thursday, 7 August 2008

Stem cell therapy that works

Reported in the Age, today.

But note, not embryonic stem cell therapy, which has produced nothing of therapeutic value but involved the killing of many human beings.

Man runs 100 kilometres, stops.

See here.

Thanks Dave.

Jury duty

Here's an incredible story from today's SMH about a high profile court case, aborted because of one phone call which may have been a hoax.

This is a huge can of worms. From now on, all that guilty criminals who are placed on trial need to do to slow things down is to phone a friend.

Wednesday, 6 August 2008

We should name names

I've left a comment on Justin Taylor's blog, on the post entitled Keller and Powlison: Should You Pass on Bad Reports?.

Have a look and see if you agree.

Update I: The comment's gone but the question remains—the New Testament names Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5); Peter (Galatians 2); Euodia and Syntyche (Philippians 4) and 'Cretans' (Titus 2:12), and a number of individuals in 2 Tim 4. Then in the gospels we have Judas, Peter, and all of the disciples in one way or another shown up as betrayers, spineless, proud, inconsistent, hypocritical and foolish. In each instance, and more, bad reports are passed on for the benefit of readers. So the post by Tim Keller and David Powlison is a useful reminder, but flawed because it is selective in its attention to the biblical evidence.

Update II: Lisa in the comments for this post points to a useful discussion on the 9 Marks blog, covering similar ground.

Update III: Justin Taylor has just kindly sent me an e-mail letting me know that no comments were deleted. So any comment of mine or anyone elses that disappeared can be blamed on the evil technology demons!

Tuesday, 5 August 2008



I mean, this is blog post number 888.

I'm always out by one. Story of my life.

Beijing smog

Things are looking particularly urrky and murky.

And, in an event some Chinese would call propitious, this is blog post number 888.


Beautiful...Sydney midwinter day.

Here are the words I thought of this morning as I was walking home. They start with the letters p, o and r; not necessarily in that order.





I could have added 'professional', and 'porcupine', but as I didn't think those words when I was walking home, I won't.

Violence in the book of Psalms

Have you noticed the level of violence in the book of Psalms? I've posted about it on the Sola Panel, today.

Monday, 4 August 2008

Beijing Olympics and persecution of Christians

I've posted about this over on the Sola Panel blog.

While some are free to bolt, others have been bolted behind bars.

Alexander Solzhenitsyn dies

The report is here.

An obituary is here.

Solzhenitsyn had a strong Christian faith and has now gone to meet his Lord and Saviour.

His short book, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch, is a picture of life in the Soviet gulag with a wonderful testimony of faith from one of the prisoners, a Baptist pastor. An easy way into Solzhenitsyn's writings.

De facto marriages

How dreadful! The government is considering imposing responsibilities upon de facto couples that they should have taken on voluntarily in the first place. See here.

From the article:

"Marriage is being imposed on everyone whether they like it or not," says Patrick Parkinson, professor of law at the University of Sydney. "It will come as a shock to some people."

But in the days when it was a much bigger issue for couples just to move in together without declaring their intention to marry—not all that long ago really—the big justification used for thinking it was OK was that love would hold the couple together forever. Marriage was just a piece of paper that formalized things, and you didn't really need it.

I guess time, and the current situation whereby the government needs to impose marriage-like responsibilities on marriage-like relationships, has shown how empty that argument always was.

Sunday, 3 August 2008

Stop Dave, I'm afraid

Three minutes 12 seconds of pure robotic fear. Still one of the great moments in sci-fi cinematography.

Saturday, 2 August 2008

Facebook and blogs

If you're on facebook, there's a new application called 'blog networks', which may be worth checking out. I haven't really looked into it, but if you want to become a fan of this blog and of the Sola Panel blog, apparently you can. Can't hurt to try. If you're on facebook, all your personal information is likely already on a server in a vault somewhere in a mountain in Utah, so one more application isn't going to matter much, and may even be useful.

Tony finally gets it

Tony has rediscovered the lost art of efficient blogging. Brilliant! That's how it's done. And because you have included more than one link, and a reference to something that's not online, it's not just art, mate. It's scholarship.

Friday, 1 August 2008

Costello will stay

This is surely right. Peter Costello will stay and become the next leader of the Federal Opposition.

The great commuter race

From Ryde to the city, as reported in the SMH. The guy on foot nearly won!

In the same race, the bus passenger gets some advice:

At 8.40 it takes on the Anzac Bridge and we get to Druitt Street by 8.47. Here, the woman in front advises us to hop off and walk up to the QVB. We don't arrive until 8.54; she was right.

Yes! I've only been beaten up that hill twice, when I've walked (OK Dave, jaywalked!).

Yesterday evening I got off the bus at Lyons Rd Drummoyne and jogged back with an 8 kg pack on my back (I weighed it when I got home, out of curiosity). It was slow but, for the first time, not sluggish.

But cycling is what I'd be doing if Fifi let me.